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Friday, July 12, 2024 - 05:58 AM


First Published in 1994


One of the many genetic differences between humans and apes is that all of the apes have 24 pairs of chromosomes while humans have only 23. As a result, in order for humans to have a common ancestor with apes two smaller ape chromosomes would have to fuse to form our chromosome 2. As result Evolutionists are desperate to try to prove human chromosome 2 fusion theory because without it, their entire world view collapses.

In labeling these chromosomes, you have human chromosome 2 and the corresponding chromosomes of the three great apes are labeled chromosomes 2a and 2b by evolutionists. This this is done based entirely on the presupposition of fusion theory. This also makes good propaganda to convince the unsuspecting not only of human chromosome 2 fusion theory but that we must have a common ancestor with chimpanzees other apes.

However, when you look at actual images of the chromosomes the similarity all but disappears. While there are some similarities in the patters, the chimp chromosome 2b has a segment not found in human chromosome 2 right near the alleged fusion point and on the wrong side of it. Furthermore, this is just the tip of the genetic ice burg that goes against human chromosome 2 fusion theory.

Before we go on, I have to make this it clear that human even if chromosome 2 fusion theory were proven true, that would not prove we have a common ancestor with apes. It is quite possible that the original humans (Adam and Eve) were created with 24 pairs of chromosomes and that a subsequent fusion event occurred reducing it to 23. Biblically this could have happened at the fall or any time before Noah's Flood so if human chromosome 2 fusion theory were proven it would have no effect on Biblical Creation.

Evolutionists on the other hand need human chromosome 2 fusion theory to be true because their entire world view requires it. Because of this, evolutionists will use any scrap of data they can find to try to support it and they will ignore and dismiss any evidence that goes against it. Since Evolutionists need human chromosome 2 fusion and Creationists have no problem if it is true, Creationists can be totally objective on the topic, while Evolutionists desperately need it and cannot be even remotely objective.

The main evidence claimed for human chromosome 2 fusion theory are the alleged fusion site and an alleged inactive centromere that would coincide the centromere on ape chromosome 2b. While the claim of an inactive centromere is made, it has not been possible to find a copy of the actual nucleotide sequence. There is far more information on the alleged fusion site, and it actually yields problems for human chromosome 2 fusion theory.

As said earlier, the actual nucleotide sequence of the alleged inactive centromere is not available making a personal study of the site impossible. However, an inactive centromere would contain a set of highly variable repetitive sequences called alpha-satellite DNA or alphoid DNA for short. The fact that alpha-satellite DNA is highly variable is likely the reason it is hard to find since it makes poor propaganda. Furthermore, alphoid DNA is not unique to centromeres but are found elsewhere in both human and chimpanzee genomes. Also, they do not necessarily occur in the same places in human and chimpanzee genomes. Furthermore, they are more plentiful in the human genome.

A telomere is essentially a DNA end cap with a repetitive sequence of TTAGGG. These end caps are usually 10s of thousands of base pairs long, but the alleged fusion site is only hundreds of base pairs. However, since the shortening of the end caps tends to promote fusion, this may not be a problem.

If this were a head-to-head fusion, we would expect to see repeats of TTAGGG and the reverse sequence CCCTAA on opposite sides of the fusion site. It should also include may repeats of the alternatives TCAGGG, TGAGGG, CCCTGA and CCCTCA on their respective sides. These repeat sequences should be clumped together on both sides of fusion site. The actual fusion search should look something like this:

CK Fussion1

However, the actual sequences at the alleged fusion site look like this:

CK Fussion2

Going only on the basis of these sequences there is enough similarity to a telomere that if one wants to consider this a fusion site bad enough, you can see it that way. However, the site is enough unlike a telomere that it cannot be objectively or conclusively considered to be a telomere fusion site. Remember Evolutionists need this to be a telomere fusion site, or their theory is done for.

There are good reasons to why this is probably not a telomere fusion site. These sequences are not unique to telomeres but occur in several places in the Human genome. Among these are gene transcription factor binding sites.

In Human beings the area around the alleged fusion site has a number of genes not found in chimpanzees. The three Exon variant of the DDX11L2 gene which produces an important non-encoding RNA crosses the alleged fusion site. The DDX11L2 gene was originally labeled a pseudogene that was thought by Evolutionists to not have a function but the Encode project found that it is not only functional but regulates the DDX11 gene which codes for the important DDX11 protein.

The fact that one of the gene's transcription factor binding sites is inside the alleged fusion site shows that the alleged fusion site is an active segment of DNA. Also, when the actual sequences of Human chromosome 2 and chimpanzee chromosome 2a and 2b are compared including the unalignable DNA they are only 66.2% similar and the alleged fusion site is part of the unalignable DNA.

These facts strongly show that this is not a fusion site. In fact, the only fusion site is the philosophical need of atheists for humans and apes to have a common ancestor. Ultimately, chromosome 2 fusion theory is more philosophical presupposition and propaganda than it is science. The actual science goes against this theory.

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